This white paper examines the history of Microsoft Windows 2003 Server, the cryptographic landscape when it was introduced and improvements made since then. It will also explore the process of improving certificate authority (CA) security and protection by using nCipher nShield hardware security modules (HSMs) and migrating to Microsoft Windows Server 2012 R2. This paper also contains security recommendations and guidelines for new and existing PKIs that do not need to be migrated as well.